Dictionary

A

All-Risk Insurance, Seguro com Cobertura Total - - The broadest form of insurance coverage available, providing protection against all risk of physical cargo loss or cargo damage from any external cause. It does not cover loss or damage due to delay, inherent vice, inadequate packaging, or loss of market.

Anti-dumping laws, Leis Anti-dumping – These laws impose additional taxes to products that are being imported at prices below those in the domestic market of the exporting country. This characterizes the practice of “dumping” with injury to the production of a similar product in the importing country.

AWB (Air Waybill), Conhecimento de Embarque Aéreo - a non-negotiable contract between a transport company and the shipper for the aerial transport of goods.

B

Back to Back (Import for Export Markets) - operation regulated by the Central Bank in Brazil, permitting Brazilian companies to buy goods from another country ( Import ) and sell/send them directly to customers to a 3º country ( Export) without entry in the Brazilian customs or Brazilian territory.

Back to Back with cargo – an aerial transport shipment which requires the signature of only one MASTER and one HOUSE for the same cargo without the need for consolidation (when all the HOUSES are of the same consignee).

BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor), Fator de Ajuste de Combustível – An adjustment in shipping rates to compensate for fluctuations in fuel costs. Also known as "Bunker Surcharge" (B / S). The word Bunker refers to the oil storage tank in the vessel.

Bill of Lading (B/L), Conhecimento de Embarque Marítimo - A document issued by a carrier to a shipper that serves as:
1) A receipt for loaded cargo
2) A definition of the contract for the loading of goods.
3) A document of ownership to the goods described therein.
4) This document is generally not negotiable unless consigned "to order"


Bill of Lading, On Board, Conhecimento de Embarque Marítimo, a Bordo - Document that ensures that specific merchandise was received on board the ship.

Bill of Lading Consigned to Order, Conhecimento de Embarque Marítimo à ordem – A negotiable bill of lading. There are two types: 1) A bill drawn to the order of a consignee, enabling him to endorse the bill to a third party. 2) A bill of lading drawn to the order of the shipper and endorsed by him/her, “Blank Endorsed” (blank), placing the order in the care of the bearer or appointed agent.

Blank Endorsed – Endosso em branco -
1) Often used in the bill of lading, it is an endorsement whereby the holder becomes the owner of the Bill of Lading, which only has the name of the endorser and does not specify any particular carrier or agent.
2) It also means the rates of endorsement of the shipment for the shipper

Bonded Warehouse, Entreposto Aduaneiro - A warehouse authorized by Customs Authorities for the storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed. These goods are under the jurisdiction of Customs or the Federal Revenue until final clearance of goods.

Break-bulk Vessel, Navio de Carga Solta - A vessel designed to handle large or oversized cargo; generally cargo unsuitable for container stowage.

Bulk Cargo – carga solta – loose cargo that is held within the ship facilities or cargo tanks. Containers are not used in this type of transport.

Bulk Carrier, Transportador de Carga Solta - There are two types of bulk carriers, the dry-bulk carrier and the liquid-bulk carrier, better known as a tanker. Bulk cargo is a shipment such as oil, grain, or one which is not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and is loaded without counting or marking.

C

CAD (Cash Against Documents), Valor contra documento - Uma forma de pagamento de mercadoria, na qual o título de transferência dos documentos de embarque/venda é dado ao comprador para utilização mediante pagamento do valor a um intermediário que está agindo pelo vendedor.

CAD (Cash Against Documents) - A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring ownership of the goods are given to the buyer upon full payment to the collecting bank acting for the seller.

CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor) correção monetária – An adjustment on freight charges by a carrier to compensate foreign currency fluctuations.

Cargo Insurance, Seguro da Carga – Insurance to cover possible loss or damage of cargo during transportation and/or warehousing and cargo handling up to the place or point of delivery stated in the Insurance Policy ( door to door, port to port, etc.)

Carrier, Transportador – Any company or person who, under a contract of carriage, undertakes the responsibility to move the cargo or goods from origin to a given destination as stated in the B/L, AWB, Truck Bill, any other document covering sea, air, truck, rail or any other combination of transport of goods.

Certificate of Manufacture, Certificado de Fabricação - A document used under a letter of credit containing an affidavit that goods have been manufactured and are being held for the account and risk of the buyer.

Certificate of Origin, Certificado de Origem - A document ensures the goods were manufactured in a given country. It is used for Customs or foreign exchange purposes or both. Certificates of Origin are generally issued by an official organization, like the Industry Unions, Trade Unions, Consulate or Chamber of Commerce, in the country of origin. It is important to note that the document only confirms where the products were produced and not where they were shipped from. It is a legal requirement to grant duty reduction and/or special duty treatment or exemptions within Free Trade Areas, Common Markets or special International Agreements or concessions as benefits to a given exporting country.

CFS (Container Freight Station), Local de Ova e Desova do Container - The term CFS at loading port means the location, where carriers will receive cargo and load them in containers. When the term is assigned to the destination port of international departure, it means the place where the container will be unloaded.

Chargeable Weight, Peso Taxado ou Cubado – Weight considered for the charge of freight costs based on weight or measures of cargo, which is higher.

Charter – When the shipper rents a vessel or an aircraft for a particular shipment out of regular shipping schedules for the carriers.

Chassis - A truck trailer built to accommodate, fix and support inland transportation of containers or containers move at sea ports and cargo handling sites.

Chassis Usage Surcharge - Fee charged in most U.S. ports for the handling of cargo at the port.

CIA (Cash in Advance), Pagamento Antecipado – A method of payment whereby the buyer pays the seller prior to shipment of the goods or cargo.

Classification, Classificação Fiscal - A term whereby it is determined the correct Customs Tariff classification to determine duty rate and other taxes to be paid at port or airport of destination.

Clean on Board - B/L Limpo – cargo received on board as declared, with no evidence of damage or shortshipments based on packing conditions and quantity shipped. Content, specifications and quality as declared by shipper.

Combination Vessels, Navio Combinado - A type of vessel that accommodates both container and break-bulk cargo. It is also known as a Container/Break-bulk Vessel.

Commercial Invoice, Fatura Comercial – issued by the manufacturer, shipper or exporter. The commercial invoice is the document that serves as the basis for customs clearance of goods in the country of destination, assuming the function of the invoice for the international market. It must contain all correct information concerning the seller, manufacturer, buyer, consignee, country of origin and country of destination, cargo specification, quantity, net and gross weights, net value per item and total value of invoice, Incoterms, payment terms, etc.

Conference, Conferência - A group of carriers or vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing routes, shipping schedules and freight rates.

Confirmed Letter of Credit – Carta de Crédito Confirmada – A payment order that the importer contracts with its bank ( issuing bank) , in favor of the exporter, to be advised by a bank at destination ( advising bank), duly confirmed and guaranteed by a third well known international bank ( confirming bank) which takes full responsibility for the payment against presentation of all required documents as per L/C.

Consignee, Consignatário - The individual or entity to whom goods are shipped from abroad. Can be the same as the buyer or another named person or company. The consignee is legally responsible for the goods and must pay all duties, taxes and port charges due on the imports.

Consignor, Consignador - A term used to describe any person who consigns goods to himself or a third party via a bill of lading or an equivalent document. A consigner could be the owner of the goods, or a Freight Agent that consigns goods on behalf of a third party.

Consolidated Shipment, Embarque Consolidado - A method of shipping whereby an agent (freight forwarder or consolidator) combines small shipments from various shippers into one larger shipment in order to obtain reduced freight rates. The shipment must be deconsolidated at the destination by the agent who provides documentation to the various consignees. The sole purpose of this method is to obtain the best freight rates for the international transport.

Consolidator, Consolidador - An agent who brings together a number of small shipments and consolidate into a larger shipment to pay lower freight rates

Consular Documents, Documentos Consulares - Special forms signed by the Consulate Offices of the destination country for a given shipment.

Consular Invoice, Fatura Consular - A document required by some countries describing the goods of a shipment and information pertaining to the consignor, consignee, and the value of the shipment. It is certified by a Consulate Officicer. A consular invoice is required by the importing country's Customs Authorities to certify correct origin of products and documentation.

Customs Transit, Trânsito Aduaneiro – Special Customs Regime that allows the transport of goods, under Customs control prior to nationalization, to a final destination (usually a bonded warehouse). It also covers inland move of goods for export , from place of origin or from a bonded warehouse to the sea port or airport of departure where the cargo is inspected by Customs Inspectors and shipped abroad.

D

Dated Draft, Term Draft - Saque a prazo - A draft issued by shipper or seller for future payment at destination indicating the expiry date as agreed by seller and buyer.

Dead Freight, Frete Morto - Freight charges paid by the charterer of a vessel for rental of a partially occupied space.

DDC (Destination Delivery Charge) – Charges for delivery at destination.

Deck Cargo, Carga Não Coberta - Cargo carried on deck of vessel and not stowed under deck.

Demurrage – A penalty charged by carrier from the importer for late return of empty container after delivery of cargo at the port of destination. Normally the importer is granted 7 to 21 days to return the empty container after unloading the ship without being charged demurrage. Objective is to speed up return of empty container and optimize use of such equipment for sea transportation and avoid abusive retention by the cargo consignee.

Density, Densidade - Weight units per unit of packing.

Door to Door Insurance – Seguro porta a porta – Contracted insurance to cover damage or loss from the point of origin to the place of final delivery of goods or cargo, covering internal transportation at the port and airport of departure, international transport, arrival at the country of destination, warehousing, customs clearance, final inland transport for delivery to the importer or consignee.

Draft, Saque – Document issued in 1 original plus 2 copies in the amount of invoice covering goods shipped abroad. Draft must indicate the drawee, value and currency involved, the invoice and B/L or AWB covering the goods shipped and must indicate expiry date for payment ( can be sight draft or term draft ).

Drawback – Special Import Regime and export incentive via the reduction of import duties and taxes for raw materials, spare parts, components for machinery and equipments, supplies in general. The import tax is exempted or deferred until proof of export of the final product in which the imported component or materials were used in the manufacturing process.

Drawback Integrado Suspensão – This export incentive is a tax suspension on the import of goods to be later exported. There are several types of tax suspensions: Common, Intermediate, Generic, Intermediate Generic and Without Expectation of Payment.

Drawback Integrated Exemption – Drawback Itegrado Isenção - The company obtains the rights to import exactly the same raw materials applied in the production of the product that was already exported. It is an operation to recover duties and taxes paid during imports of products later used in the manufacturing process for exported items. Two types of this draw-back: Common or Intermediate.

Drawback Repayment – Drawback Restituição – Refers to the refund of taxes paid on the importation of goods used in the manufacturing, complementing or packaging of goods already exported.

Drawee, Sacado - The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the drawer. Sacador , Drawer – Who issue the draft reflecting a sale and effective shipment of goods to the drawee. Drawee is the person or company that must pay the draft against presentation or at maturity date, to pay for goods ordered and received.

E

EDI or EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport) - Trocas de Dados Eletronicamente para Administração, Comércio e Transporte – this is a system of electronic transmission of data for trade, administration, transport.

EX-Tariffs - EX-Tarifário - Procedure under the Common External Tariff or CET that creates an exception to the tariff treatment of the NCM or a tax classification . It is a temporary reduction of import duty for machinery and equipment not produced in Brazil.

Export License, Licença de Exportação - A document secured from a government agency that authorizes a shipper to export a specific quantity of a particular commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required when a government places restrictions on export of some products under critical supply shortage or for some reason requires government control for security or sanitary reasons among others.

Export Trading Company, Empresa Comercial Exportadora – A business entity organized and specialized in the shipment of exports. It provides export services to other companies of other industries for sales to international markets

F

FCL (Full Container Load) – Refer to a complete 20’ or 40’ container load, regardless of the quantity of cargo inside these containers. Freight is charged based on FCL and not the cargo shipped.

Feeder Vessel, Navio de Pequeno Porte - A small vessel that navegates rivers and lakes that connects with a line of Maritime Vessels (large) to serve certain ports that are not physically able to harbor a large ship.

Feeder Vessel, Navio de Pequeno Porte - A vessel that connects with a line vessel to service a port not directly served by that line vessel.

FEU ( 20’ Container) - Term normally used in rate negotiations of ocean freight referring to the equivalent one twenty-feet container. A 40’ Container equals 2 FEU.

Flag Carrier, Bandeira do Transportador - Indicates the country where the ship or vessel is registered and where the owner has its headquarters.

FIATA International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations – Federação Internacional de Associação de Agentes de Carga.

Flat Rack - A platform designed with the flexibility to carry oversized cargo on board of container vessels. It can be loaded from the sides and from the top, usually having adjustable or removable bulkheads at the front and back.

FMC - Federal Maritime Commission - The U.S. Federal Agency responsible for overseeing Ocean Carriers, Conferences, NVOCC's and Ocean Freight Forwarders (now called OTI's - Ocean Transportation Intermediaries) at ocean ports and inland waterways.

Force Majeure, Força Maior - The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.

Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder, Agente de Carga Internacional - An independent business agent that handles shipping procedures to assure cargo is shipped as planned, by sea, air or land transportation. This Agent also prepares the necessary documents to ship the cargo, reserve space on the ship/truck/airline, arrange warehousing and delivery at pier, handle export customs clearance and all related services.

FPA (Free of Particular Average), Livre de Avaria Particular - A marine insurance clause relating to the cargo damage and cargo loss during sea transportation.

Free Port, Porto de Livre Comércio - A sea port or land site having the status of a Foreign Trade Zone, allowing imports duty free.

Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ), Zona Franca - A port, airport or other location or site considered as duty-free area for imports and exports. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, and used for manufacturing within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid.

G

Gross Weight (GR Wt./GW), Peso Bruto - The total weight of a cargo, including containers and packing materials, crates, boxes.

H

Harmonized Code, Código Harmonizado - An uniform system to classify products according to their nature, species and specification, which is accepted internationally, for determination of duties and taxes payable at Customs, for statistics on imports and exports and other purposes..

House - Contract that the freight forwarder has with the shipper. When the cargo is consolidated, the freight forwarder has one contract (MASTER) with the aircarrier or vessel carrierand another contract (HOUSE) with the shipper or consignee of the cargo.

I

IATA (International Air Transport Association) – Associação de Transporte Internacional.

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) - A specialized Agency of the United Nations headquartered in Montreal, Canada. It’s responsible for promoting general development of civil aviation such as aircraft design and operation, safety rules and procedures, and other agreements in the aircraft and flight activities.

Import Declaration, Declaração de Importação – a document issued and registered in the SISCOMEX system. This document consists of proof of customs inspection, has all importation data, NCM, the amount of taxes to be paid, the importer’s name and tax ID. This document proves the legal import of goods and duty payment.

Import License, Licença de Importação - A certificate issued by countries imposing import controls. Currently, in Brazil, the grant of import license is automatic, except for imports of used machines and any used product and items subject to administrative controls and government approvals concerning specifications, quality controls, prices, demands for technical and health standards, import quotas and other control measures.

INCOTERMS - The set of rules and terms approved by ICC – International Chamber of Commerce, Paris, to define precisely the conditions and terms of international trade , the responsibilities of each party, determine delivery sites, costs and risks for buyers (importers) and suppliers (exporters/shippers) . It defines the location and delivery point where a counterpart fulfill its obligations and the other party takes the responsibility for the cargo, its risk and costs until final delivery at destination.

Inducement (Induzir) - When a ocean carrier publish in their shipping schedules a port’s name and "(by inducement)", the vessel will call at the port only if there is a sufficient amount of cargo for boarding, otherwise the vessel will not stop at said port.

Inland Freight (Transporte interno) - Domestic transportation within the country of export, from factory to port or airport of departure and from the port or airport of destination to final delivery of cargo at the address of the importer or consignee.

Inspection Certificate, Certificado de Inspeção - A document certifying that merchandise is in good condition and in accordance with certain specifications and conditions as ordered. This certificate may refer to the goods, to packing conditions, to vessel or aircraft or a combination of all. Objective is to assure integrity and quality of product until final delivery at destination.

Interline - A mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.

Intermodal - This refers to the capacity to use various transportation modes to deliver cargo: train, truck, vessel, airplane, etc.

International Chamber of Commerce – Câmara Internacional do Comércio – a non-governmental organization based in Paris that has global operations and publishes studies and publish standards for international trade. Experts from member countries participate in its studies and approval of rules and terms. It has standardized rules for INCOTERMS, for the issuance and enforcement of Letters of Credit, International Guarantees, etc.

ISO – International Standard Organization - International organization that studies and establishes quality standards for products, services and processes. It publishes standards that must be followed and used by all countries. Thus we have the ISO-9000, ISO-14000 and many others.

J

Joint Venture - A term describing a business partnership where parties will share the risks and profits of business enterprise or venture, organized for mutual benefit of the parties.

Just in Time (JIT) – Delivery system in which a product, part or component or raw-material is delivered to production site or to final customer at the moment required, with no back up inventory or cushion.

L

LCL - Less than a Container Load; Less than a Car load.

L&D - Loss and Damage.

LTL (Less than Truckload), Menos que um caminhão – Cargo load not sufficient to load a truck. Also apply to freight cost for a full truck load, although the cargo is less than truck load and customer want special delivery of such cargo, non consolidated with others.

Legal Weight – Peso legal – The weight of the product, plus its individual packing. It does not include the shipping box or carton box for several units.

Letter of Credit (L/C), Carta de Crédito - A payment order that the importer or buyer contracts with its bank, in favor of the exporter or seller in another country.

Liner, Linha de Rota – An ocean route for a vessel, from port of origin to port of destination.

Load Factor, Fator de Capacidade – Used capacity as compared to total capacity.

Logistics Management, Gerenciamento de Logística - The efficient and cost-effective management of the goods and cargol movement from supply sites to final delivery and sale site, including transportation, warehousing, cargo movement, handling, etc.

M

Manifest – Manifesto – A list of goods transported by a carrier.

Mantra – Integrated Management System of the Manifest, Transit and Storage.

Master – Transport Contract issued by the carrier for consolidated cargo or shipment. A Master B/L cover the whole consolidated shipment. House B/L covers only part of the same larger shipment.

Measurement Ton – Medida de tonelada – a unit of measure generally 40 cubic feet or a cubic meter. 1000 Kgs.

Mercosur, Mercosul – the Southern Common Market – an international agreement between Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay to promote free trade, economic and social integration, harmonization of tax policies, a common external tariff, healthcare policies, trading standards and measures, etc. between the signatory countries. The Agreement is open to new members from other South American countries. Chile and Bolivia are associate member countries. Venezuela is in the process of becoming an associated member.

N

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) - A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A., Canada, and Mexico.

Net Weight (Actual Net Weight), Peso Líquido - The weight of the goods alone without packaging.

NT – net ton.

NVOCC - (Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier) - In Brazil, this term refers to the FMC-licensed cargo consolidator of shipments in ocean trade. It generally arranges or performs consolidation and containerization functions. In trade that does not include Brazil, NVOCC's operate under different rules and governmental licensing may not be a requirement.

O

OD, Diâmetro Externo - Outside Diameter.

Open Account, Conta em Aberto - A commercial arrangement in which goods are shipped to an international buyer without guarantee of payment such as L / C or any other documentary evidence of the agreement. Inter-company trade usually follow this condition.

Open Policy, Apólice de Seguro em Aberto - An open insurance contract that protects all shipments in a specific region or during a limited period of time. It is referred to as “open” because it is not necessary to make advance notification or report for each shipment. This condition is more common among companies in the same class, in inter-companies transactions or with long-established and reliable insurance clients.

O/R, Risco do Proprietário - Owner's Risk.

P

Packing List – A document issued by the shipper that describes the loaded cargo with details packing, export packing, net and gross weights, dimensions, numbers, color, shipping marks, list of product in each packing, etc.

Part Charter, Vôo Charter - When part of an airline's scheduled flight is reserved as if it were a charter in its own right. It is often incorrectly used as a synonym for split charter.

Particular Average (PA), Avaria Particular - Partial loss or damage to cargo during transportation.

Perils of the Sea, Perigos do Mar - Accidents exclusive to the transportation of goods on navigable water, such as sinking, vessel collision, striking a submerged object or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.

Perishables, Perecíveis - Any cargo that deteriorates and loses considerable or total value if it is delayed in transportation, warehouse or distribution. This usually refers to fresh fruit, vegetables, fish and meat out of freeze units.

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate, Certificado de Inspeção Fitosanitário - A certificate issued by an exporting countries' Department of Agriculture declaring that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.

Pilferage – Loss due to petty thievery during transport and warehousing of cargo. This type of theft should be covered by export and import insurance since ordinary marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage.

Port Marks – Shipping Marks – Marcação de Volumes - An identifying set of letters, numbers, or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port and country of destination that are placed on external parts of export packing, bags, cartons, crates, drums, any other.

Port of Discharge, Porto de Destino - A port where a vessel is unloaded and cargo discharged.

Port of Entry, Porto de Entrada - A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.

Port of Loading, Porto de Embarque - A sea port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel.

Prepaid Freight, Frete Pré-pago - Freight prepaid in the currency of the exporting country by the exporter or shipper for both sea and air shipments.

Prima Facie – A Latin term frequently encountered on the international market, which means "at first sight". When a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received "in apparently good order and condition." This is officially verified evidence "prima facie" of the condition of the container. In other words, if nothing appears to the contrary, it must be accepted that the cargo was in good condition when received by the carrier.

Primary Zone, Zona Primária - Area occupied by ports, airports and / or bonded border points.

R

RECOF – special customs regime that allows importation without payment of customs duties and taxes for machines, equipment and parts, components and supplies usually intended for the following industries: aeronautical, automotive, computer, telecommunication and semiconductor.

Reefer, Refrigerado - A refrigerated container, trailer or railcar for transporting perishables.

Repetro - Special customs regime that exempts duties and taxes on the importation of machines, equipment, parts and accessories that are destined for the oil and natural gas industry.

Reporto – Special customs regime that exempts duties and taxes on the import of machinery, equipment, parts and accessories for use in port facilities and their operations.

Ro/Ro (Roll-on/Roll-Off) Vessel, Navio Ro/Ro - A ship designed to accommodate cargo that is rolled on and rolled off. Many Ro/Ro vessels can also accommodate containers and/or break-bulk cargo. Special vessel to carry vehicles in general, cars, trucks, buses, heavy equipments on wheels like cranes, liftrucks, scrapers, etc.

Route, Rota – A sea transit route established by the carrier from the point of departure to the final destination of the vessel.

S

Safeguard Measures – Tariff and non-tariff measures that protect certain production sectors facing strong foreign competition and/or dumping. These measures usually are imposed and valid for a 5 year period but can be extended or reinforced if so needed.

Shipment, Embarque – Cargo delivered to a carrier by a consignor or shipper at a certain time and place to be delivered to the consignee at another place as per terms and conditions of the bill of lading.

Shipper, Embarcador - Term used to describe the consignor/exporter (usually the Seller or his agent ).

Ship's Manifest, Manifesto de Carga - A written document containing the list of all merchandise which will be carried by the vessel.

Sight Draft, Cobrança à Vista – A draft or bill that is payable on demand or upon first presentation via the collecting bank at country of destination.

SISCOMEX – Integrated System of Foreign Trade – Electronic System composed of several modules of Customs Controls to manage and register all the import and export operations in Brazil.

Steamship Agent - Agente do Navio - An appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting on behalf of a steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by the carriers they represent.

Steamship Line - A company usually having the following departments: vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inbound rates, and sales. They have regional and international offices.

Stowage, Estiva - The loading of cargo in a vessel in such a manner as to provide the utmost safety and efficiency for the ship and the goods it carries.

Strikes - Riots and Civil Commotion - Greves, Distúrbios e Comoções Civis – An insurance clause referring to loss or damage directly caused by strikes, personal problems with works and labor disturbances of various kinds. Streamline insurance does not cover these risks.

T

Tare, Tara - The weight of the empty container or empty truck.

Tariff, Tarifa - A general term for any listing of rates or charges. The tariffs most frequently encountered in foreign trade are: tariffs of international transportation companies operating at sea, land, and in the air; tariffs of international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and Customs tariffs indicating duty rate plus other taxes on imported products.

TEC – Common External Tariff - Tarifa Externa Comum – Common Customs Tariff based on the Harmonized System and adopted by MERCOSUR countries Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

TEU - Cargo transport unit or container of 20 feet in length. A container with a length of 40 feet is equivalent to 2 TEUs.

Temperature Controlled Cargo, Carga com Controle de Temperatura - Any cargo requiring transport under controlled temperature.

Temporary Admission, Admissão Temporária – Special Import Regime and Customs procedure which allows imports to remain for a certain period in a country without payment of duties and taxes. Reasons for this temporary stay may be trade fairs and events, repairs, tests, sampling, etc.

Temporary Exportation, Exportação Temporária - When the exportation is made under the condition that these goods must return to the country, in a determined period of time, in the same condition or a duly repaired, restored, etc.

THC (Terminal Handling Charge), Capatazia - A charge for handling services performed at cargo and/or container sites or terminals.

Time Draft – Term Draft - A draft issued for payment at a given maturity date, reflecting payment terms and conditions as agreed by the seller and buyer.

Ton-Deadweight, Peso Morto - The carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions, and passengers which a vessel can carry.

Ton – Weight of 1000 kgs.Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton or cubic meter, whichever is bigger.

Tracking - A system that tracks a shipment via data-entry of the movement of the shipment from its origin to destination.

Transhipment, Transbordo - The transfer of a cargo from one vessel to another vessel en route between the port of origin and the destination port. This occurs when the vesselthat takes the shipment from the port of origin does not travel the whole route to the destination port. The cargo would thus be unloaded from one vessel in a given sea port for later shipment in another vessel with destination to final port designated in the Bill of Lading.

V

Valuation Charge– Taxa sobre Valor - An additional transportation fee, charged to shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the limit allowed for transportation.

Volume Weight, Peso Volume - A term used in international air shipment to describe the final calculation of freight costs by calculating the weight or volume of the shipment.

W

W/M - Weight and/or Measurement. Charges or rates are based on weight or measure of the cargo, whichever is higher in total value

With Average (WA) - A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.

War Risk Insurance, Seguro de Risco de Guerra – Clause of import or export insurance to cover any risks that may be caused to the goods, cargoes and vessels in transit through conflict regions facing war or threat of war or any conflict.

Weight - Peso

With Particular Damage - An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. The damage generally must be caused by sea water, and many terms specify a minimum percentage of damage before payment is mandatory. It may be extended to cover loss by theft, pilferage, leakage and breakage, or other perils depending on the nature of the cargo.

WTO (World Trade Organization), OMC - Organização Mundial de Comércio - An organization that seeks to reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions between member organizations.

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Email: grupo.custom@custom.com.br